National Accountability Bureau (NAB) spokesman Nawazish Ali said Zardari has been arrested, but did not provide details.
Zardari's close aide Hussain Lawai was arrested in July in connection with the probe.
The NAB prosecutor further informed the court that evidence for Zardari's arrest would be presented, adding there were eight ground for this.
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Dhawan was hit on his left thumb by a delivery from Nathan Coulter-Nile early in his innings and needed medical attention. He batting bearing the pain and went through a scan later on to determine the extent of injury.
A team of NAB officials had reached the Zardari House in the federal capital hours after a bench of the Islamabad High Court (IHC) - comprising Justices Amir Farooq and Moshin Akhtar Kayani - had rejected a plea filed by Zardari and his sister, Faryal Talpur, seeking an extension in their interim bail in the fake bank accounts case.
A number of party workers and Zardari's children Bilawal and Aseefa saw him off as the former president was driven away in a black Landcruiser.
Small scuffles erupted on Monday between police and supporters of Zardari's opposition Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) outside his family's residence in Islamabad as he was taken into custody.
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He spent time in jail in the 1990s and 2000s, and was nicknamed "Mr 10 per cent" for the commissions on government contracts he allegedly received.
Al Jazeera's Kamal Hyder, reporting from Islamabad, said "Zardari has been a controversial figure" in Pakistani politics.
Khan's predecessor, Nawaz Sharif who was removed from office by the Supreme Court over corruption allegations, is now in prison in the eastern city of Lahore after being sentenced to seven years in a corruption case.
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Sharif and Zardari are long-time political rivals but their parties recently joined together, vowing to launch a protest campaign against Khan's government over increasing inflation and a spike in prices of essential food items. He was Pakistan President from 2008 to 2013.