The House of Commons voted 286-344 against the withdrawal agreement struck between Prime Minister Theresa May and the European Union, rebuffing her plea to "put aside self and party" and deliver the Brexit that Britons voted for.
But on Monday MPs will try to agree on an alternative Brexit plan that could command majority cross-party support.
The immediate next step in terms of parliamentary process in the United Kingdom is another round of indicative votes tabled by non-ministerial lawmakers to be held next week.
One Cabinet minister said "there is no one in the Cabinet who thinks she should lead us into a general election",.
"We want to leave the European Union on April 12 or very soon afterwards", The Sun quoted a Brexit-supporting minister as saying in reference to Friday's letter.
In the fresh voting, lawmakers voted by 286 to 344 against May's 585-page EU Withdrawal Agreement, making it clear that the premiership of Theresa May was in serious danger.
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Britain has in the past had national unity governments in times of national crisis, such as World War I and II, but critics have been quick to point out such coalitions were forged when there was a single goal, like defeating Nazi Germany.
Britain had been due to leave the EU on Friday, the long-heralded March 29 "Independence Day", but faced with chaos in Westminster, May asked European leaders last week for a little more time.
The vote came on the day the United Kingdom was supposed to leave the European Union, something hundreds of people who voted to leave the European Union marked with a noisy protest outside parliament as MPs voted.
Facing a soft Brexit, or possibly an ongoing stalemate, Mrs May or parliament may see the only remaining option as a potentially deadlock-breaking election.
"Parliament will continue this process on Monday and we've got to look at all the options", Lewis said.
With no majority in parliament for any Brexit plan so far, it is unclear what May will now do.
"La prolongation de Kurzawa ? Il faut réfléchir" — Thomas Tuchel
Il a été beaucoup chambré dans le vestiaire. "C'est compliqué de retrouver le style et le rythme après une trêve internationale. A Paris, rien n'a changé depuis ce fameux mois de février, la pression est permanente, et elle s'est même accentuée.
The most popular one, it seemed, in terms of the one that comes - came closest having a majority was for was called having a permanent customs union.
Lewis, the Conservative Party chairman, said all options were on the table but that a customs union with the EU - an idea backed by the opposition Labour Party and some Conservatives - would be hard.
May now three options: go back on her word and lead the country out of the bloc without a deal on April 12; ask the European Union for a long extension to rewrite her whole Brexit strategy; or call a general election as a way out of the impasse.
It was the third failure for May, who had offered on Wednesday to step down from office if the deal passed, in an effort to garner the support of her Conservative Party as well as others.
Mr Farage continued: "It was exactly two years ago today when 498 MPs voted for Article 50, which said we leave on this date with or without a deal".
Speaking on Sky News, shadow foreign secretary Emily Thornberry said under a Labour government it was "likely" that the United Kingdom would leave the European Union. The Brexiteer politician insisted the British political system had proved to be "incapable of delivering" the results of the referendum and vowed to "revolutionise" national politics.
House of Commons rejects May's deal for third time
After the result of the latest vote was announced, Mr Corbyn said: "The House has been clear, this deal now has to change". It will be for the United Kingdom to indicate the way forward before that date, for consideration by the European Council.