The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, requested by governments, was issued ahead of a United Nations conference in December in Poland that will consider how to increase country ambitions to cut emissions and manage climate risks better.
Warming of 2C above pre-industrial levels had widely been thought of as the threshold beyond which risky climate change will occur, but vulnerable countries such as low-lying island states warn rises above 1.5C will threaten their survival.
Friends of the Earth Scotland director Dr Richard Dixon said: "The bill doesn't commit to the action necessary to limit warming to 1.5C, it doesn't deliver on the Paris Agreement, and it doesn't deliver on Nicola Sturgeon's promise to ensure that Scotland plays our full part in tackling this global problem".
"The next few years are probably the most important in our history", said Debra Roberts, an IPCC co-chair.
"The window on keeping global warming below 1.5 degrees C is closing rapidly and the current emissions pledges made by signatories to the Paris Agreement do not add up to us achieving that goal", said King.
An author of the recent report, who spoke on condition of anonymity, says the U.S. red-flagged several findings of the scientific summary for policymakers, but finally all nations endorsed it. In fact, the IPCC report says that we are ultimately heading towards 3 degrees Celsius.
Camera IconFederal Environment Minister Melissa Price.
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"Limiting global warming to 1.5ºC would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society", an IPCC press release reads.
M Rajeevan, secretary, ministry of earth sciences (MoES), says, "It's a hard target that requires all countries to come on board and make unprecedented changes but it's not impossible".
This target was long considered the threshold for the most risky effects of climate change, including the mass destruction of coral reefs, widespread food shortages, destructive wildfires and coastal flooding.
Perhaps a more startling prediction: the world's population will see these changes by 2040, well within the lifetime of billions of people.
The past 18 years have been the warmest on record since the 1850s when measurements began, he said.
"Small island nations and poor nations view 1.5 as the target that will guarantee their actual survival", Axios' science editor Andrew Freedman said Monday in an interview on Cheddar.
The review of thousands of scientific papers sets out the impacts of temperature rises of 1.5C compared to 2C, and what is needed to curb temperatures at that level.
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The IPCC's most recent (2014) Fifth Assessment of the scientific evidence found that at around 1.5℃ warming there was a transition from moderate to high risk for threatened ecosystems and cultures and for extreme weather events.
If governments fail to ramp up their ambition to reduce heat-trapping emissions over the next two years, they will have consciously abandoned the 1.5 degree goal, he added. Annual carbon dioxide pollution levels that are still rising now would have to drop by about half by 2030 and then be near zero by 2050.
The IPCC report said that to keep warming at 1.5°C global net emissions of carbon dioxide would need to fall by 45 percent by 2030 and be "net zero" by 2050.
A world with 2°C of warming will be a planet without coral reefs.
Global temperature is now rising 0.2C with each decade, and it is estimated we will reach 1.5C by 2040. In the past, the critical temperature increase was 2 degrees Celsius. The lower level would mean the Arctic Ocean would be free of sea ice in summer only once per century not at least once a decade under the higher target.
In addition to the carbon tax, the federal government is moving on a number of fronts, both at home and internationally - phasing out coal-fired power; investing in public transit; requiring cleaner fuels; and financing clean technology development. "The latter would be used as part of a now nonexistent program to get power from trees or plants and then bury the resulting carbon dioxide emissions in the ground, leading to a net subtraction of the gas from the air - bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, or BECCS".
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