They may be experts at winning our hearts, but dogs are not quite as bright as their owners think.
Goats, pigs, dolphins, seals and sea lions do at least as well as dogs at following human pointing.
Sheep, pigeons and chimpanzees are as good as dogs at identifying humans by their faces.
Pigs are as good as dogs at identifying humans by their smell.
In a new study that was not written by cats, researchers have found that maybe dogs aren't as smart as we've all been led to believe by the science world, which just might have a bias toward Spot.
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Wolves, raccoons and hyenas are as good as dogs at pulling a string to release food.
Dolphins, chimps, giant pandas, American badgers, two species of bear, sea otters use tools as well as dogs.
The study examined more than 300 papers on the intelligence of dogs and other animals and found several cases of "over-interpretation" in favour of dogs' abilities.
A team from Exeter and Canterbury Christ Church universities compared findings on dog intelligence with results for three groups of animals: domesticated animals, those that hunt in packs and carnivores such as wolves, bears and lions.
The review focussed on sensory cognition, physical cognition, spatial cognition, social cognition and self-awareness.
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Examining more than 300 papers specifically looking at intelligence, the team found several cases of "over-interpretation" in favour of dogs' ability. "Canine cognition in comparative context" in the journal Learning & Behavior.
Pigs were as good at identifying humans by their smell and cats were as good at identifying them from their voices.
"They are often compared to chimpanzees and whenever dogs 'win, ' this gets added to their reputation as something exceptional", Lea said.
Episodic memory is the ability to remember autobiographical and contextual details of events like where and when they happened.
Dr Britta Osthaus, of Canterbury Christ Church University, said dog cognition "does not look exceptional" when compared with other domestic animals, social hunters and carnivorans.
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