Put in to bat after incessant rain completely washed out the opening day, India failed to recover from the early jolts of openers Murali Vijay (0) and Lokesh Rahul (8) before the showers disrupted the proceedings in the morning session.
Meanwhile Chris Woakes marked his return to global cricket with two wickets for 19 runs in six overs, removing both India captain Virat Kohli (24) and Hardik Pandya (11) via slip catches by Jos Buttler.
India captain Virat Kohli may field the same playing XI for two consecutive Test matches for the first time since he took over as captain in the longer formats in 2014.
Both teams had made changes from the first Test with India making two changes from Edgbaston and opting for a twin spin bowling attack.
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"I thought the wicket, because of the weather we can not control, it was to bat on", he said.
India skipper Virat Kohli turns back on Cheteshwar Pujara.
"When we bowl like that we would bowl most teams out in the world, we were that good". Such scrambled thinking then did for Pujara after India's No3 set off for a single in Anderson's next over.
Having been bowled out for 107 on day two, India will have harboured hopes of at least limiting England's lead when they reduced the hosts to 89-4 at lunch.
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Kohli responded, only to change his mind and retreat.
Dropped slip catches proved a problem for England at Edgbaston, with Kohli missed twice en route to 149 - his maiden Test century in England.
Sam Curran and Stuart Broad chipped in with a wicket each, while Anderson dismissed Ajinkya Rahane (18) and scoreless duo Kuldeep Yadav and Ishant Sharma to end with figures of 5-20.
It was the sixth time that Anderson has produced a five wicket haul at Lord's and he now has 99 Test wickets at the famous London venue.
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That brought 20-year-old debutant Ollie Pope to the crease and he acquitted himself well, getting off the mark with a boundary whipped behind square and swiftly reaching 28 before Hardik Pandya skidded one though to trap him in front.