Atletico hasn't lost at Bernabeu in five seasons now in the Spanish league.
But Antoine Griezmann equalised for Atletico few minutes later after Ronaldo's opener to secure a share of the points for his side.
It was Madrid who eventually went 1-0 up thanks to star man Ronaldo who struck in the 53rd minute.
Las Palmas, whose last league win came against Malaga 10 games ago, was in the second tier for the last time in the 2014-15 season.
Barcelona lead the standings on 79 points after beating Leganes 3-1 on Saturday.
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The Catalans will lift a 25th Liga title if they win four of their seven remaining games.
"In the first half they were better, but we then started to link up better in midfield and attack".
Asked whether his team-mates were the players happier with a point, France forward Griemzann replied: "Well, yes, but we wanted to win".
"When they scored we responded immediately, and we saw a game we could win with Koke and [Angel] Correa".
"I think we started to turn the screw a little bit on them after their goal".
Gareth Bale could start vs. Atletico, Real Madrid train with full squad
What we have done in this decade is tremendous, Atletico fans should be proud of how their team is competing. It worked well in Cardiff last May and was even better this time around in a dominant 3-0 win.
Real winger Marco Asensio and left back Marcelo both hit the crossbar in the first half, while the home side had penalty appeals waved away either side of the interval and Oblak was forced to save goal-bound shots from Dani Carvajal and Ronaldo.
Niguez nearly gave Atletico the lead in the 71st minute only to see his strike go just wide of the target.
Madrid captain Sergio Ramos nearly grabbed an injury-time victor from a free kick, but Slovenian goalkeeper Oblak again came to Atletico's rescue by tipping the curling shot over the bar.
"I feel physically and mentally able to keep playing".
"We could have lost without [goalkeeper Jan] Oblak".
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Levante opened the scoring at Ciutat de Valencia Stadium with a goal by Jorge "Koke" Andujar in the 35th, but David Garcia equalized in the 50th before Campana calmly found the far corner for the victor in a late breakaway for the hosts.